10 Facts About The Third Eye All Humans Have But Don’t Know About

Our heads have a small endocrine gland which produces hormones responsible for modulating our sleep patterns. The gland is right at the center of the brain, between the two halves of the brain, at the thalamus joint. The gland is shaped like a cone and hence, called the pineal gland.

Believers say that the pineal gland, once activated to its full potential can let us travel through dimensions, look through the future and have the supreme knowledge of every unknown mystery of the universe. Let’s find out a bit more about this controversial “Third Eye” which may or may not be the gateway to Enlightenment.

1. The significance of pine cone

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The staff of Osiris, the Egyptian God depicts two serpents, intertwined with each other rises up and meets at a pine cone. It is quite similar to the representation of “Kundalini” awakening, a state of enlightenment in Hinduism, where two serpents rise spirally up to the pineal gland.

The magnificent pine cone at the Vatican, the pine cone in the hands of the Greek God Dionysus, in the hands of the Roman Gods, Bacchus, the pine cones in Free Masonic designs and Buddha with a pineal cone at the top of his head – they all have something to say.


2. The significance of the gland in the Vedas

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The Vedic energy system, often called the Chakra or the wheel of life, states that the pineal gland is directly linked to the Ajna or the third eye. The Ajna signifies the conscience in Hinduism and and it is that part of the brain which, when stimulated, can be used to achieve powerful feats.

Not only is Ajna the gland that makes the brain sensitive to light and determines our sleep cycle, but it also produces dimethyltryptamine, a psychedelic hormone, symbolized by two lotus petals.


3. The Buddhist connection

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The pine-cones in Buddha’s hair is not the only connection with the apparent belief that the pineal gland is the third eye. Quite interestingly, according to MahanayaBuddhism, it takes 49 days for soul to be reborn after death which is the exact time taken by the pineal gland to develop in a newborn fetus.

Scientists have studied brain scans of Tibetan Buddhist monks and found an increased activity in their pineal glands during meditation.


4. The pineal gland is an eye according to science

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Ancient Vedic texts and many mystic traditions all over the world have regarded the pineal gland as a third eye.

In 1886, E. Baldwin Spencer and H.W De Graff, two micro anatomists, discovered that the pineal gland has all the features of the external eyes such as the pigmented, retina cells, and it also responds to light directly as well as through the nervous pathways of the external eyes.


5. The Shiva Linga is actually the pineal gland

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Contrary to the theory that that the Shiva Linga represents a phallic symbol, many are of the belief that the Shiva Linga actually represents the pineal gland. The pineal gland of the human body is best stimulated in darkness.

Interestingly, the Shiva Linga is also placed in the darkest sanctums of the temples. The darkness is believed to be one of the reasons why ancient Rishis did theirtapasyas (meditation) in caves.


6. A blessing for the dark skinned

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Several theorists are of the opinion that people of darker skin color are superior to ones with lighter skin with regards to spirituality because of the melatonin secretion that aggregates melanin causing darker skin.

Prejudices had driven the western world (white dominated)to consider melanin to be of no use but with time, the multinational properties were acknowledged.


7. The spiritual drink of the Shamans in South America

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The practitioners of divine healing through rituals and interaction with spirits, the Shamans of Amazonian Peru are known for making an entheogenic brew known as the Ayahuasca, a traditional spiritual medicine.

Many claim that they have learnt the art of making the brew from the plants and spirits of the forest and the brew that causes spiritual revelations are made from plants containing dimethyltryptamine, a hormone produced by the pineal gland.


8. Swami Vikenanda and the pineal gland

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A Hindu monk and a Vedic scholar, Swami Vivekananda had mentioned the use of pineal gland while talking about Ojah, which means “strength” or “vigor”.

He says and we quote, “When the Ojas has gone from center to center and reaches the Pineal Gland (a part of the brain to which science can assign no function), man then becomes neither mind nor body, he is free from all bondage.”


9. How the pineal gland is calcified

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The calcification of the penial gland will close any doors that could be opened to a whole new realm of spiritual realization. However, artificial food, poor nutrition, bad exercise habits cause the gland to be calcified.

One of the most detrimental elements to the penial gland is fluoride which is present in abundance in the toothpaste we use everyday. Experts also say that contact to cell phone radiation is also a major contributor.


10. The conspiracy theory

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It is a common conspiracy theory that that 99% of the world is controlled by 1%. According to the conspiracy theorists, the information that we can actually open our third eye, experience more than we can imagine both physically and spiritually is a threat to the “them” because we will no longer be weak or depressed and will no longer need the consumer products for buying happiness and the healthcare industry will go down as well.

The potential of the human mind is beyond imagination!


India’s First Underwater ‘Mumbai-Ahmedabad’ Bullet Train Will Run Under The Sea

Bullet train, mumbai-ahmedabad bullet train, bullet train under seaThe 508 km long Mumbai-Ahmedabad high speed rail corridor will have a 21 km long tunnel under the sea. (Representational image)

Passengers will get the thrill of riding under the sea while travelling between Mumbai and Ahmedabad in the first bullet train of the country.

The 508 km long Mumbai-Ahmedabad high speed rail corridor will have a 21 km long tunnel under the sea, said a senior Railway Ministry official involved with the public transporter’s ambitious bullet train project.

While most part of the corridor is proposed to be on the elevated track, there will be a stretch after Thane creek towards Virar which will go under the sea as per the detailed project report by JICA.

Estimated to cost about Rs 97,636 crore, 81 per cent of the funding for the project will come by way of a loan from Japan. The project cost includes possible cost escalation, interest during construction and import duties.

It is a soft loan for 50 years at 0.1 per cent annual interest with 15 years’ moratorium, said the official. Rolling stock and other equipment like signalling and power system will be imported from Japan as per the loan agreement. The official said the loan agreement with Japan is slated to be signed by the end of the year and construction work is likely to begin by the end of 2018.



According top priority to the first of its kind project, railways has formed National High Speed Rail Corporation Limited (NHSRCL), a special purpose vehicle (SPV), with a paid-up capital of Rs 500 crore. A search committee comprising senior government officials including Cabinet Secretary, Chairman Railway Board and Secretary DOPT among others is on the job currently to select the Managing Director and five directors for the NHSRCL. Railways has already allotted Rs 200 crore for the SPV. Maharashtra and Gujarat will have equity of 25 per cent each, while the Railways will have 50 per cent in the SPV. The bullet train is expected to cover 508 km between Mumbai and Ahmedabad in about two hours, running at a maximum speed of 350 kmph and operating speed of 320 kmph. At present, Duronto Express takes about seven hours to cover the distance between the two financial centres. For timely completion of the project, a joint committee has been formed under the vice-chairman of NITI Aayog with the secretaries of the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Departments of Economic Affairs and Foreign Ministry as its members along with the Railway Board Chairman.

Scientific Evidence Thoughts & Intentions Can Alter The Physical World Around U


Dr. Masaru Emoto, a researcher and alternative healer from Japan has given the world a good deal of evidence of the magic of positive thinking. He became famous when his water molecule experiments featured in the 2004 film, What The Bleep Do We Know? His experiments demonstrate that human thoughts and intentions can alter physical reality, such as the molecular structure of water. Given that humans are comprised of at least60% water, his discovery has far reaching implications… can anyone really afford to have negative thoughts or intentions?

The rice experiment is another famous Emoto demonstration of the power of negative thinking (and conversely, the power of positive thinking.) Dr Emoto placed portions of cooked rice into two containers. On one container he wrote “thank you” and on the other “you fool”. He then instructed school children to say the labels on the jars out loud everyday when they passed them by. After 30 days, the rice in the container with positive thoughts had barely changed, while the other was moldy and rotten.

Is this proof that consciousness and intention can affect the “physical” material world around us? If so, then what are the implications of this?

Masaru Emoto’s Water Crystal Experiments

The hypothesis that water “treated” with intention can affect ice crystals formed from that water was pilot tested under double-blind conditions. A group of approximately 2,000 people in Tokyo focused positive intentions toward water samples located inside an electromagnetically shielded room in California. That group was unaware of similar water samples set aside in a different location as controls. Ice crystals formed from both sets of water samples were blindly identified and photographed by an analyst, and the resulting images were blindly assessed for aesthetic appeal by 100 independent judges. In conclusion, the present pilot results are consistent with a number of previous studies suggesting that intention may be able to influence the structure of water. Here is a photo of the effects direct states of conscious intention has on the structure of water.



Consciousness has measurable effects on the geometric structure of water crystals. What does this tell us about the nature of consciousness? Is it possible that water is comprised of the same underlying “thing” as our thoughts are? Maybe this is an incentive to give good “vibes” to our food before we eat it. Here is a link to the pdf. file of the original study.



Study Shows Water Has Memory. German Scientists Expand On Dr. Emoto’s Work


Dr. Masaru Emoto — the man who claims that water contains memory and that our consciousness can impact it. He was in town for a speaking event and we had the chance to privately interview him for a couple hours, offering us the amazing opportunity to hear about his work firsthand. At this time, his research was finally being recognized in a big way by the mainstream and he was going to be having some very interesting high level conversations about it to move it forward. He was right on the verge of taking his work to a whole new level.

Just a few short weeks later, he passed away, on the cusp of his success.

Having sat with him in what very well may have been his last interview, I later thought to myself how disheartening it was that he died just before seeing his work truly flower. I really wanted to see his work fully explored at an openminded level which would allow for wonder and intrigue to exist in a study that could transform the way we view our reality.

You see, the scientific world has a culture which, inherently, has a difficult time accepting work like this. Why? Because things like this are hard to measure, and when we can’t fully measure and understand something in our modern scientific world, we are often afraid to study it and put our names on it. The unfortunate reason for this is that materialistic science has simply become the new religion of today, in a number of ways. While that has provided a plethora of amazing insights and wisdom, it also limits our understanding of our world by disregarding things that may exist that we simply don’t understand yet or can’t access physically.

Emoto shared his thoughts on all of this as we interviewed him. Although he had received much ridicule from mainstream science for his work, the deeper spiritual understanding that came from his research helped him to stay humble and open to the transformation in the way people viewed his work as an inevitable part of the future. And he was right there… it was ready to take off for him.

Thankfully, people have been inspired by his work and have expanded upon it to find some amazing things about the data and information water carries.

New research from the Aerospace Institute of the University of Stuttgart in Germany supports the theory that water has a memory. This idea was first coined by French immunologist Dr. Jacques Benveniste in a controversial article published in 1988 in the journal Nature as a way of explaining how homeopathy works. Later, others, including Dr. Emoto, took their hands and theories to this idea, all of which also proved controversial.

But recently another breakthrough has been brought forth and it comes with very interesting, reproducible results. The video clip below, from the Oasis HD Channel, shows some fascinating recent experiments involving water and memory. It comes from the Aerospace Institute of the University of Stuttgart in Germany. Although all aspects of the research you are about to see are intriguing, one thing that really struck me is the bit about different types of flowers being immersed in water and how the water keeps memory of that. Would this perhaps lend credence to the homeopathy theory?



More On Emoto’s Work

“The experiment I’m using in this article was conducted by Dean Radin, Ph.D., who is the Chief Scientist at IONS and Adjunct Faculty in the Department of Psychology at Sonoma State University.(1) The experiment was done to measure how intention alone affects water crystal formation. Co-Investigators were Masaru Emoto, a Japanese energy scholar and author, along with a few other researchers and scientists.

waterThe experiment tested the hypothesis that water exposed to distant intentions affects the aesthetic rating of ice crystals formed from that water. Basically, it tested whether intentions could influence the physical structure of water (as mentioned earlier). Over a period of three days, approximately 2000 people in Austria and Germany focused their intentions towards water samples that were placed inside an electromagnetically shielded room in California. Other samples were located outside of the shielded room so that they could act as a distant control. Ice drops formed from multiple samples of water in different treatment conditions were photographed by a technician. Each image was assessed for aesthetic beauty by over 2,500 independent judges and the results of the data were analyzed by individuals who were blind with respect to the treatment conditions.

Results showed that the test was consistent with a number of previous studies suggesting that intention may be able to influence the structure of water.”



Why Indians traditionally never slept with their heads pointing north, and explores a few other things that can help us sleep well and rest better

images (21)How your body is engineered

Your heart is not located half-way down, it is placed three-fourths of the way up because pumping blood up against gravity is more difficult than pumping it down. The blood vessels which go upward are a finer arrangement compared to those going down. As they go up into the brain, they are almost hair-like, to such a point that they cannot even take one extra drop. If one extra drop is pumped in, something will burst and you will have a hemorrhage.

Most people have hemorrhages in their brain. This does not incapacitate you in any major way, but small damages happen. You may become duller, which people are becoming. Your level of intelligence after the age of 35 drops in many ways unless you take enormous care to keep it up. You are managing because of your memory, not because of your intelligence.

What happens when you put your head to the north?

If you have any kind of blood-related problem, let’s say anemia, what would a doctor prescribe? Iron. It is an important ingredient in your blood. You have heard of the magnetic fields on the planet. In many ways, the earth is engineered because of its magnetism. That’s how powerful the magnetic forces are on the planet.

If you place your head to the north and stay that way for 5 to 6 hours, the magnetic pull will cause pressure on your brain.

When the body is positioned horizontally, you can immediately make out that your pulse rate drops. The body makes this adjustment because if blood is pumped at the same level, too much will go into your head, causing damage. Now, if you place your head to the north and stay that way for 5 to 6 hours, the magnetic pull will cause pressure on your brain. If you are beyond a certain age and your blood vessels are weak, you could have hemorrhages and paralytic strokes. Or, if your system is sturdy and these things don’t happen to you, you could get up agitated because there is more circulation in the brain than there should be when you are sleeping. It is not that if you do this for one day, you will fall dead. But if you do this every day, you are asking for trouble. What kind of trouble depends on how strong your system is.

So, which is the best direction to sleepwith your head pointing towards? East is the best direction. North-east is okay. West is alright. South, if you must. North, no. This is true as long as you are in the northern hemisphere – sleeping with your head towards any side except north is okay. In the southern hemisphere, don’t put your head to the south.

Here’s How Indian Scientists Helped The World Confirm Einstein’s Gravitational Waves Discovery

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Indian scientists played a crucial role, including in data analysis, in the path-breaking project for the detection of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time. These had been predicted by Albert Einstein predicted a century ago.

Several institutes, including Institute of Plasma Research (IPR) Gandhinagar, Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune, and Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore were involved in the research.


The announcement of detection of gravitational waves was made simultaneously at IUCAA, Pune, and by scientists in Washington DC, USA. Incidentally, India is also one of countries where an advanced gravitational laboratory is being set up.

The key tasks they carried out included the following:

* Understanding the response of the LIGO detector to the signals and terrestrial influences

* Bounding the orbital eccentricity and estimating the mass and spin of the final black hole

* Estimating energy and power radiated during merger

* Confirming that observed signal agrees with Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

* Searching for a possible electromagnetic counterpart using optical telescopes.

Some of these jobs were carried out in high performance computing facilities at IUCAA, Pune and ICTS, Bengaluru.

The group, led by Bala Iyer at the Raman Research Institute in collaboration with scientists in France, had pioneered the mathematical calculations used to model gravitational wave signals from orbiting black holes and neutron stars.

Another group led by Sanjeev Dhurandhar at IUCAA initiated and carried out foundation work on developing data analysis techniques to detect these weak gravitational wave signals buried in the detector noise by looking for the best match between the calculated waveforms and the detector signal. Meanwhile, the director of Pune’s Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) Somak Raychaudhury said he was looking forward to the launch of a similar observatory in India.

Porn vs Tantra – Disturbing Facts About Modern Day Sex We Should All Consider



*Photo is called “Shiva and Shakti” and was done by AlicePopkorn

Admittedly, this is a touchy subject for most people, with opinions ranging vastly in degree and ferocity. Not everyone is going to like the theory that porn may be psychologically detrimental, but is important to consider the notion nevertheless. For instance, some studies have found associations between watching pornography and a decrease in the volume of grey matter in certain regions of the brain. More concerning to me, however, are the expectations about sex that porn seems to program into us. Porn makes sex entirely about the physical, about the orgasm, instead of the connection and energy exchange that can happen when both parties are emotionally and spiritually present. What we see, we repeat and desire. An image of what sex is has been laid out for us, this manufactured definition creates expectations of what it’s supposed to be like.

We are not saying that everything about this definition is ‘bad.’ There is nothing wrong with desiring the physical and aesthetic aspects of sex, or with looking for pleasure, but it is important to consider that pornography websites rank among the top in the world. Are we missing something here? Is the way that this type of sex is depicted harmful or wrong? It’s hard to say with any certainty. Naomi Wolf of New York Magazine weighs in on the matter:

After all, pornography works in the most basic of ways on the brain: It is Pavlovian. An orgasm is one of the biggest reinforcers imaginable. If you associate orgasm with your wife, a kiss, a scent, a body, that is what, over time, will turn you on; if you open your focus to an endless stream of ever-more-transgressive images of cybersex slaves, that is what it will take to turn you on. The ubiquity of sexual images does not free eros but dilutes it.

Other cultures know this. I am not advocating a return to the days of hiding female sexuality, but I am noting that the power and charge of sex are maintained when there is some sacredness to it, when it is not on tap all the time. 

Today, sex is everywhere, especially in the media. Whether it’s half clothed and highly sexualized bodies or outright provocative performances, we are being bombarded with a specific type of sexuality.

“In the U.S., adults tend to view young people as these bundles of exploding hormones. In the Netherlands, there’s a strong belief that young people can be in love and in relationships.” – Amy Schalet, an American sociologist who was raised in the Netherlands and now studies cultural attitudes towards adolescent sexuality, with a focus on these two countries.

What is Tantra? It’s an ancient belief system about sex which involves meditation and ritual practices. It deals with the recognition of energy, and the use of sex for more than just pure sensorial pleasure. It is, in essence, the opposite of porn. Porn focuses on stimulation through the body senses. Tantra is about intimacy and connection and the recognition that we are more than just our physical bodies. In tantra, connection is everything and sex is meant to be a multi-dimensional experience.




The scientific reason behind bells in Hindu temples


Temple Bell

The scientifc reason or the significance feature behind bells in temple.

All the Hindu temples have bell at the entrance of the temple or inside the temple and usually you need to ring it before you enter temple and while doing pooja to God.

Is it to wake up the Lord? But the Lord never sleeps. Is it to let the Lord know we have come? He does not need to be told, as He is all knowing. Is it a form of seeking permission to enter His precinct? It is a homecoming and therefore entry needs no permission. The Lord welcomes us at all times. Then why do we ring the bell?

Most of us would have thought why do we see bells in all the Hindu temples and what will be the significance nature of bell to keep in all the temples and ringing while doing Pooja also and here is a scientific reason behind Temple bell presence; Bell is not made up of just your ordinary metal. It is made of various metals including cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and manganese.

The proportion at which each one of them mixed is real science behind a bell. Each of these bells is made to produce such a distinct sound that it can create unity of your left and right brain. The moment you ring that bell, bell produces sharp but lasting sound which lasts for minimum of seven seconds in echo mode (if you found a bell whose sound doesn’t last for 7 seconds.. then it’s not made in perfect way)

The duration of echo is good enough to touch your seven healing centres or chakras in your body. The moment bell sound happens your brain is emptied of all thoughts.

Invariably you will enter state of Tran’s state where you are very receptive. This Trans state is the one with awareness. You are so occupied in mind that only way to awaken you is with a Shock! Bell works as Anti-dote to your mind. Before you enter temple – In other words “it helps to ring to wake yourself temple. 

Everything You Wanted to Know about the Pineal Gland



You’ve probably heard of this gland being the ‘third eye,’ a mystical chakra point residing right in the middle of your eyebrows. Well, it turns out these ideas aren’t too far off. The small, rice-sized, pinecone-shaped endocrine organ known as the pineal gland sits alone in the middle of the brain and at the same level as the eyes.

Pineal Gland Functions

How you think and feel every day depends on the pineal gland. As the producer of the hormone melatonin, the quality and duration of your sleeprelies on how well it produces this hormone. This tiny organ regulates your daily and seasonal circadian rhythms, the sleep-wake patterns that determine your hormone levels, stress levels, and physical performance.

4 Ways to Activate the Pineal Gland

Activating your pineal gland may be helpful for regulating mood, sleep, and energy levels. Here are 4 ways to get started:


1. Get Out and Into the Sun

Sun exposure kick starts the pineal gland to produce serotonin and stimulates the mind. Any type of light exposure, either directly or indirectly, activates the pineal gland, prompting it to produce serotonin. This neurotransmitter is responsible for mood and improves energy levels. This is why it’s crucial to avoid light after the sun goes down, because you need your pineal gland to produce melatonin and suppress serotonin. This process can only be accomplished by reducing light from electronicsand lightbulbs as much as possible.

2. Sleep in Complete Darkness

A dark environment ensures your pineal gland produces enough melatonin to ensure good, restful sleep. Make sure you avoid backlit devices like phones, tablets, computer monitors, or TV right before bed. The lighting of these devices stimulates serotonin production, tricking your pineal gland into thinking it’s daytime, confusing your wake/sleep cycle.

3. Sun Gazing

Sun gazing is perhaps one of the most controversial exercises you can do to activate the pineal gland, simply because there’s no scientific evidence to prove its effectiveness or safety. Here’s the basics of the practice: within the first 15 minutes of sunlight at the beginning of the day and then the final 15 minutes of sunlight at the end of the day, you gaze into the sun for a couple of seconds, but only a couple of seconds. Again,sun gazing has its risks. Simply getting out in the sun and having your eyes exposed to light indirectly can help stimulate the pineal gland without having to stare directly into the sun’s rays.

4. Meditation

The pineal gland responds to the bioelectric signals of light and dark, and meditation activates this bioelectric energy. With practice, you can learn to direct this energy to this highly-sensitive organ.



Modern Problems with the Pineal Gland

Calcification is the biggest problem for the pineal gland. Fluoride accumulates in the pineal glandmore than any other organ and leads to the formation of phosphate crystals. As your pineal gland hardens due to the crystal production, less melatonin is produced and regulation of your wake-sleep cycle gets disturbed. [1]

Research also reports fluoride hardening accelerates sexual development in children, particularly in girls. [2] And this is a serious problem as a study from 30 years ago reported 40% of American children under 17 were found to have pineal calcification in process. Since then, we’ve see children, especially girls, experience the early onset of puberty. [3]

In addition to fluoride, halides like chlorine and bromine also accumulate and damage the pineal gland. Calcium supplements can also cause problems. Without enough vitamin D–64% of Americans are vitamin D deficient–calcium does not become bioavailable and calcifies human tissue, including the pineal gland. [4]

Eliminating fluoride may be the best first step for reducing health concerns. Use fluoride-free toothpaste, avoid tap water, and drink filtered water. For the best filtered water, use a reverse osmosis water filter. Eat calcium-rich foods rather than taking calcium supplements if you can get plenty of vitamin D.



How to Decalcify Your Pineal Gland

If you’ve been exposed to fluoride, your pineal gland has some degree of calcification preventing it from working well. Here are a few ways you can decalcify:

Tamarind Fruit

The fruit from the African tamarind tree is extremely effective at removing fluoride from the body. One study found children given tamarind excreted significantly more fluoride in their urine compared to the control group and may halt or even reverse the effects of skeletal fluorosis. [5] [6]


Mix one teaspoon of borax (or boron) in a liter of water and take it in small quantities over the course of a day or two. Consult your doctor before using this method.


These volcanically-produced crystals have recently been discovered as a powerful way todetoxify your body. They break down hardened calcium that forms around heavy metals in tissue and removes these heavy metals from the body.


Regular cleansing enables the body to naturally remove toxins and heavy metals from the body, including fluoride.


Halides like fluoride, chlorine, and bromine accumulate in your tissue if you’re iodine deficient, which is an increasing problem around the world. If you’ve cut back on salt and don’t eat a lot of seafood, there’s a good chance you may be deficient. Symptoms of iodine deficiencyinclude chronic fatigue, thyroid disease, feeling cold or a low body temperature, and hormone imbalance. To get more iodine, eat foods rich in iodine, [link to article on sources of iodine] or take a colloidal iodine supplement for the best result.

Nasa spacecraft spots ‘floating’ hills on Pluto


WASHINGTON: Nasa’s New Horizons spacecraft has captured images of frozen nitrogen glaciers on Pluto carrying numerous ‘floating’ hills that may be fragments of water ice, giving an insight into the dwarf planet’s fascinating and abundant geological activity.

These hills individually measure one to several kilometres across, according to images and data from New Horizons.

The hills, which are in the vast ice plain informally named Sputnik Planum within Pluto’s ‘heart,’ are likely miniature versions of the larger, jumbled mountains on Sputnik Planum’s western border.

They are yet another example of Pluto’s fascinating and abundant geological activity, Nasa said.Since water ice is less dense than nitrogen-dominated ice, scientists believe these water ice hills are floating in a sea of frozen nitrogen and move over time like icebergs in Earth’s Arctic Ocean.The hills are likely fragments of the rugged uplands that have broken away and are being carried by the nitrogen glaciers into Sputnik Planum.
‘Chains’ of the drifting hills are formed along the flow paths of the glaciers.
When the hills enter the cellular terrain of central Sputnik Planum, they become subject to the convective motions of the nitrogen ice, and are pushed to the edges of the cells, where the hills cluster in groups reaching up to 20 kilometres across.At the northern end of the image, the feature informally named Challenger Colles – honouring the crew of the lost space shuttle Challenger – appears to be an especially large accumulation of these hills, measuring 60 by 35 kilometres.

 This feature is located near the boundary with the uplands, away from the cellular terrain, and may represent a location where hills have been ‘beached’ due to the nitrogen ice being especially shallow.
The new image was captured using New Horizons’ Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) instrument.
 The image resolution is about 320 metres per pixel. The image measures a little over almost 500 kilometres long and about 340 kilometres wide.
 It was obtained at a range of approximately 16,000 kilometres from Pluto, about 12 minutes before New Horizons’ closest approach to Pluto on July 14, last year.